Sophos XG Firewall – The Complete Build and Maintenance Guide | Basic



This guide is intended for network administrators aiming to deploy a Sophos XG firewall device in an on-premise network environment. To ensure familiarity with the device interface, the first section of the document will be dedicated to an overview of all components of Sophos XG firewall.

Since the device is expensive, costing about £2,000 for on-prem and £4,000 for the cloud offering, Sophos have made available an online live demo which you can register to use for practice;

Logging into the portal should bring you straight into the Control Center interface as shown below:

The device serial number can be found at top left right below Control Center, along with system metrics like performance, interfaces, system resource usage, high availability configuration status and the total up-time of the firewall.

The left pane of the interface offers all the configurable options available to your XG firewall split into categories below:

Monitor & Analyse
Control Center
Current Activities
Reports
Diagnostics

Protect
Firewall
Intrusion Prevention
Web
Applications
Wireless
Email
Web Server
Advanced Threat
Central Synchronization

Configure
VPN
Network
Routing
Authentication
System Services

System
Profiles
Hosts and Services
Administration
Backup & Firmware
Certificates


Access Monitor&Analyze > Current Activities to reveal all live users and remote users. An administrator can disconnect any user whose machine may be posing a threat to the network.



Sophos XG offers a very detailed comprehensive report statistics on the performance and state of your firewall. Navigate the tabs to find information displayed in easy to analyse pie charts about Network and threats, VPN, Email and Compliance.



Diagnostics tab offers a whole host of tools for the Sophos XG firewall. You can perform packet capture analysis, manage connection list and grant access to Sophos support for a set duration of time to access the device. More details will be explored as this guide progresses.



                      Sophos XG Registration & Set-Up

Now that we have explored the interface of the Sophos XG firewall, we can now proceed to register and set up our device. We shall explore 5 topics into detail regarding getting your XG firewall operational;

1. Creating a Sophos ID
2. Start up and Registration
3. Completing set up wizard
4. Confirming your firewall is operational
5. Verifying & Synchronizing Licenses

                                  Creating a Sophos ID


To set up a Sophos ID, visit Sophos.com > My Account > Create Sophos ID.

Fill in the name and business email and confirm you are not a robot and register and account.
Confirm your email address with the link. You want to check your junk mail folder if you haven’t received the message in a while.

Set a very strong password and log into your account with the new Sophos ID.

 You may want to fill in the backup email and phone information in the event you need to recover your Sophos ID account. 



Once the backup information is completed and saved, access My Applications > MySophos where you can select My Profile. Fill in the information about the company you are setting up the Sophos XG firewall.


Be sure to save all your changes after completing your profile and the creation of your Sophos ID.

                                           
                                    Start-Up and Registration 

Before we begin setting up and registering our firewall, there are some pre-requisites pictured below;


A Sophos ID which we created in our previous step will be required, along with details of your internet connection from an ISP containing the following information:

-Usable public IP addresses
-Subnet mask
-DNS server information

You can also visit Sophos.com/get-started-xg to download the latest set up guide information about XG.

Assemble your XG Firewall and your WAN to Port 2 and LAN to Port 1 as pictured below:


If you have a laptop connected to port 1 and have DHCP enabled, the laptop should pick up an IP address in range of the Sophos XG device and you can log into the interface with IP 172.16.16.16:4444

Alternatively, you can hard code an IP address in range on your network card. Eg. 172.16.16.2 which should put your Sophos device and laptop on the same subnet.

Log into the XG interface with default credentials admin/admin and accept the end user licenses and terms and conditions associated with the use of Sophos XG firewalls.



              We can now proceed with device registration by clicking Basic Setup



Using the details provided by your ISP, populate the public IP, subnet mask, default gateway and DNS information and click save changes. Give the device about 30 seconds to initialize the network config.

You will know the network update is successful with a confirmation green tick pop-up. The device is now ready for Registration by clicking the button and checking if its able to access the internet. If you get an error at this stage, you may want to double check your settings from ISP. [Use Sophos ID credentials].

The registration process may take a while, so once complete you can proceed to synchronize your license with Sophos.


                                Completing Set-Up Wizard

Although this step may be skipped, it is advisable to run the set-up wizard for the first time to ensure the necessary modules and services are activated and verified. System configurations can always be modified manually after the device is fully operational.


  Two deployment modes exist for Sophos XG, Bridge Mode and Gateway Mode



Bridge mode is used when there is an existing firewall on premises, and you connect your Sophos device to port 2(WAN) using a crossover cable. The firewall will then acquire its WAN IP via DHCP.



Gateway mode is used when the Sophos is directly connected to the modem/router of the ISP on port 2 WAN with Port 1 LAN connected to the switch on premises.



The most common option used is Gateway Mode which should take you to the next step configuring your network interfaces. Select a port, assign an IP address and mask and select the zone you want the port assigned to. Eg. LAN, WAN, DMZ etc.



If you set your device to pick up DHCP automatically, the details should be found on this page. You can input manual DNS settings like Google 8.8.8.8 or CloudFlare 1.1.1.1 Host name will be your Sophos XG serial number which should already be populated. You can add a description if preferred.



The next step takes you to default network policy settings. Tick User/Network Rule and recommended to leave Web Filter, App Filter and IPS as None.



Network policies essentially lets an administrator set LAN – WAN traffic rules for web filtering, app filtering and Intrusion Prevention Systems. Traffic can be denied to all, allowed to all, blocked for explicit content and advertising content.

More tools are available to configure these rules to best suit the scenario of the production network.



If you have an email server, the details can be populated here for system notifications. This setting can be edited later in the configuration tools.



The last step is to set the time zones, date and time for your XG device. You can tick the box to synchronize with NTP Server.



Double check all the settings on the overview windows and Click Finish to exit the config wizard.



A warning is likely to flash prompting the wizard will flush all current settings. Since this is our initial set-up, you can click OK to save the new settings.




The XG device should then reboot to configure the mode of operation for the firewall.



                            
                      Confirming your Firewall is Operational

Once the XG has booted up, you can log in with the default credentials Admin/Admin for the console.
In control centre, Click on Interfaces to inspect the status of the LAN and WAN configurations we performed in the set-up wizard.



Like the image above, you should see the status of all your ports on the XG including LAN, WAN, Wireless and other unassigned ports.



From there, click on Firewall and inspect the rules set from the wizard are still present. The config will allow traffic from any host on the LAN to the wider internet on the WAN.

Confirm everything is working by visiting your favourite sites like google.com or Sophos.com

To confirm the connection status, access Network and inspect the ISP settings configured in the set-up wizard is active and connected. Check your ISP and DNS settings if you struggle to access the external internet domains like Google.com



                            Verifying & Synchronizing License
Now the Sophos XG is set up and operational, we can verify and synchronize our device with Sophos licensing portal.


This can be done in two ways; Access the Administration > Licencing tab or click directly on the Administration tab on the left main menu.


This interface displays all registration information as well as module subscription details subscribed to. Click in Synchronize to effect any changes.

You can check the expiry dates of added module subscriptions like Network Protection, Email Protection and Email Protection.


                              Activating New Subscription Package

Depending on the requirements of the company, a network administrator may need to install other modules such as Webserver Protection or Sandstorm.

Any required modules will need to be purchased from Sophos with license issues in a .pdf document like the sample below:


This document displays information about the module purchased, the licence key and duration of the licence in months. Copy this key and return to the licensing page on Sophos XG.


Click Activate Subscription and input the license key provided by Sophos

A pop-up window should appear where you can paste and click Verify to validate and activate your new security package which should show a status as Subscribed in Green when active.


                    
              Sophos XG Firmware Update and Roll-Back

This section of the tutorial will examine the status of the firmware running the Sophos XG firewall, versioning and how to update as well as roll back to a previous firmware version if things go wrong.

When an update becomes available, you would get a prompt the next time you access the dashboard. You can proceed by clicking the link, bearing in mind never to update anything without first backing up the current configuration.


Alternatively, you can manually navigate to System > Backup & Firmware to access the backup interface, API, firmware and the ability to import or export a firewall configuration to file.

Only after you’ve taken a config backup, click to download and install the new firmware bearing in mind a device reboot will be required to complete the upgrade. Check the firmware version when the system boots back online.


Some situations may arise that sees the XG firewall offline and unable to automatically download firmware updates. Using your Sophos ID account, you can access the firmware 

Your device serial number will be required to locate the correct firmware, which can be found on your Sophos XG dashboard.

Once your firmware is located, download it to your PC and upload it via the upload firmware tab below the exiting active firmware running on the firewall. Give it a few minutes for upgrade and reboot.


Whenever a firmware update is performed on the Sophos XG, the system preserves the previous firmware in the event a roll back is required. Navigate to Systems > Administration > Firmware and notice both old and new firmware images are available in the tab.


To roll back to previous version, simply click on Boot firmware image and OK to roll back the XG device.

Bear in mind any configuration changes made to the device will be lost when firmware is rolled back.


   Sophos XG Administrator Password and Device Access

In this section we shall examine the administrator password, how to change it and manage access to the Sophos XG device. 

When you log into your dashboard, you will notice an alert highly recommending the Admin password be changed. Click on the link or navigate to Systems > Administration > Device Access.

 A local service access clients list should be displayed, which offers control settings of the network based on access zones. LAN, WAN, DMZ, VPN and Wi-Fi zones can all be selected according to Admin Services, Authentication Services, Network Services and Other Services to limit exposure of network zones. 

If more specific rules are required such as limiting SSH access to only Admin computers, click to edit and fine tune ACL exception rules to your network specifications.


Remember to save any changes made to the device access control list.

 At the bottom of the page can be found the section to change your default Admin password. This task is highly recommended as Sophos XG Firewalls ship with the default admin passwords, which are very well known to hackers.

It is recommended to set a very complex and strong password combination, preferably with lower case, upper case, numbers and symbols to ensure the device cannot be breached using brute force attacks or password dictionary attack methods. 


     Sophos XG Using Captive Portal for Authentication

This section will examine how we can use captive portal on the XG firewall for authentication.

Why Use Active Portal?

-You can have firewall access rules that require authentication to access the internet or various network resources.

-If a user fails to access the internet or network resources using SSO, NTLM, Radius or Guest Services, Captive Portal can be used to authenticate the user and gain access to those resources.

-Captive Portal serves as a last resort for authenticating with the firewall.


When Using Captive Portal for Internet Access

-An unknown user trying to access the internet should be redirected to the Captive Portal.

-On most networks, DNS settings are inherited on the WAN port from the Internet Service Provider (ISP).

-When you are blocking WAN access for unknown users, they cannot reach the DNS server that is out on the WAN.

-Therefore, a user trying to access the internet where authentication is required, will not be redirected to the Captive Portal.

-A separate firewall access rule is that does not require authentication is needed for WAN DNS access.


WAN DNS Access Rule to be added:

·   Create a firewall rule by clicking on “+Add Firewall Rule” in the upper right corner of the firewall user admin interface Protect > Firewall with the following settings;

-Rule Name: Allow WAN DNS Access
-Description: Allows anyone access to DNS servers located outside on the WAN port
-Action: Accept
-Source Zones: LAN
-Source Networks and Devices: Any
-Destination Zones: WAN
-Destination Networks: Any
-Services: DNS
-Match known users: Make sure this box is UNCHECKED
-Click Save at the bottom of the screen

         Configuring and Enabling a Captive Portal for a Zone

Captive portal is a great access control tool configurable on the Sophos XG firewall that enables network administrators to control user’s access to the internet, by making users known to the firewall. 

To access the interface, navigate to Configure > Authentication > Captive Portal to display the General Settings.

 Since you are configuring a portal that is user facing, click on the preview button to pop up a view of the authentication screen the user will interact with.

The Sophos logo in the pop up can be changed to a custom logo by clicking Custom and browsing for the new logo. You can use the log URL to direct users to a specific page when they click the logo.

The Page Title, header and footer messages can also be edited in the provided fields. The option to change the colour schemes of the page can also be done at the bottom of the captive portal page.


Now we have configured the captive portal, lets head back to System > Administration > Device Access and make sure the Captive Portal on LAN is ticked > Apply and OK.


With the Captive Portal active, we can now create a new firewall rule for users on the LAN zone to access the internet on the WAN zone. Navigate to Protect > Firewall > Add Firewall Rule > User/Network Rule on the IPv4 interface. 


You can now populate the interface with the firewall WAN access rules we set on page 26 with the name ‘Internet Access for Known Users’. Set Rule Position to Top and remember to check ‘Show captive portal to unknown users’ before clicking Save.


This rule configuration should then direct any user who is not known to the XG firewall to the captive portal for authentication, before allowing access to the internet.

Below the firewall rule settings can be found Malware Scanning settings, tick ‘Scan HTTP’ and ‘Scan FTP’

In the advanced section set ‘Intrusion Prevention’ – GeneralPolicy, ‘Web Policy’ – Allow All, ‘Application Control’ – Allow All and tick ‘Log Firewall Traffic’ to ensure any users that redirected to the captive portal is logged for analysis.

The firewall rule ‘Internet Access for Known Users’ should now be visible on the dashboard with status turned on.

Since most networks are set to use external DNS servers for name resolutions, and there is no DNS server on the network, users who try to access the internet will not inherit DNS settings from the WAN port, and therefore will not be directed to the captive portal.

To ensure users can gain access, we need to create another rule to allow access to external DNS on the WAN interface.

The configuration is like the one above except the services is set to DNS and ‘Match known users’ Unchecked.


To test the firewall rules you have set, deactivate Allow WAN DNS access and notice a user will be unable to get out to the wider internet. Turning it back on should now redirect the user to the captive portal page, after a warning is displayed prompting an insecure site.


Customize the behaviour of the captive portal by navigating to Configure > Authentication > Services and scroll down to Web Policy Actions for Unauthenticated Users (Captive Portal)

You will find the ‘User request URL’ is ticked by default so a user will be redirected to the page they have requested after authenticating with the captive portal. Click ‘Custom URL’ to direct users to a specific site such as a company website.


By default, the user notification message includes a link to the Captive Portal. This can be changed by clicking on ‘Display a custom message’, which can be formatted in HTML. You have the option to customize your company header and footer logos with images of size 700 x 80 Pixels. 

 A sample HTML code can be found above which warns the user of a certificate warning before access. 


   Sophos XG Firewall Backup, Restore & Factory Reset

Now that we are comfortable setting up the XG firewall for internet and managing users in captive portal, this section will elaborate on how to back up configuration of the device, restore and reset the XG to factory settings in the event of a disaster.

Navigate Systems > Backup & Firmware to access the interface where you can perform local, FTP or Email backups with varying frequencies depending on the organizations’ security policies.

Remember that to use Email backup mode, you will need to have set up the email in the notification screen from System > Administration > Notification Settings.

Make sure to assign a prefix you can identify if you work with or operate multiple XG firewalls in the environment.

Since the XG device can become inaccessible for any reason, it is advised not to rely solely on local backups but send backup files to email periodically.

The latest backup file can always be in this interface with a timestamp of the file. Download and restore if the system becomes inoperable.

Bear in mind that any configuration made after backup files are restored, will be lost unless a new backup is taken.

There are scenarios when the Sophos XG firewall becomes inaccessible due to one of many factors. The device could lose power during a firmware upgrade for example, rendering the Sophos OS corrupt.

Navigate to System > Backup & Firmware > Firmware, click on the settings cog on the current firmware version > Select Boot with factory default.

Bear in mind once the device is reset to factory settings, all configurations will be lost. It is highly recommended to have a backup of the current configuration before performing this operation.

                                                                      
                                      Summary

This completes the tutorials for basic configuration of Sophos XG Firewall. Further study in intermediate configuration and advanced configurations are required for network administrators to effectively manage a corporate network infrastructure.

We would like to thank you for investing your time with us.

                            

                     Credits to all organisations and development teams at Sophos Labs


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